Introducción en alergia alimentaria
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Palabras clave

Alergia alimentaria
prevalencia
alérgenos
factores de riesgo
epinefrina
IgE
inmunidad retardada

Cómo citar

Introducción en alergia alimentaria. (2023). Revista Alergia México, 70(4), 208-210. https://doi.org/10.29262/ram.v70i4.1308

Plaudit

Resumen

La alergia alimentaria es un trastorno crónico frecuente que afecta a lactantes, niños, adolescentes y adultos. La prevalencia de alergia alimentaria se ha incrementado en las últimas décadas en todo el mundo, sin limitarse a los países occidentales. Puesto que no existe ningún tratamiento, éste se centra en evitar los alergenos, además de la educación de pacientes y cuidadores en el tratamiento de urgencia de las reacciones agudas, por ejemplo: aplicación de epinefrina. Los estudios sugieren que las reacciones accidentales ocurren en alrededor del 45% de los niños con alergia alimentaria cada año, aunque la mayor parte de las reacciones son de gravedad leve o moderada. Los ingresos hospitalarios por anafilaxia alimentaria varían de 4 a 20 por cada 100,000 habitantes; las muertes son raras, con una incidencia estimada de 0.03 a 0.3 por cada millón de personas con alergia alimentaria. La muerte por anafilaxia alimentaria es rara y parece haberse mantenido estable, posiblemente por el aumento en el etiquetado de alérgenos alimentarios, los servicios de diagnóstico, las tasas de prescripción de epinefrina intramuscular y la concienciación acerca de alergias alimentarias. Omalizumab es un fármaco aprobado para varias alteraciones (urticaria crónica o asma difícil) y puede ayudar a reducir los síntomas asociados con la alergia alimentaria. La importancia relativa de las tecnologías alternativas, las estrategias de gestión y las políticas para la alergia alimentaria varía de una región a otra, debido a las diferencias en la epidemiología, educación, bienestar socioeconómico y preferencias culturales de la población.

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Referencias

Generalidades

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Clasificación de la alergia alimentaria

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