Alergia alimentaria no mediada por IgE
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Palabras clave

Alergia alimentaria
Alergia alimentaria no mediada por IgE
Proctocolitis alérgica inducida por proteínas alimentarias
Hematoquecia
Probióticos
Microbiota fecal

Cómo citar

Alergia alimentaria no mediada por IgE. (2023). Revista Alergia México, 70(4), 269-279. https://doi.org/10.29262/ram.v70i4.1338

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Resumen

La alergia alimentaria es una respuesta inmunitaria a las proteínas de los alimentos. Suele afectar al 8% de los niños y al 2% de los adultos en países occidentales. La alergia alimentaria no mediada por IgE afecta, principalmente, el aparato gastrointestinal. Las alergias alimentarias gastrointestinales se clasifican, por su patogenia subyacente, en: mediadas por IgE, no mediadas por IgE, o mixtas. Los síntomas de pacientes con proctocolitis alérgica inducida por proteínas alimentarias se originan por la inflamación local del colon distal, que causa hematoquecia en neonatos. Puede afectar todo el conducto gastrointestinal y provocar síntomas de emesis intratable, con subsiguientes trastornos metabólicos y choque hipovolémico. El síndrome de enterocolitis inducida por proteínas alimentarias es una alergia no mediada por IgE que suele aparecer en la infancia, con vómito prolongado repetitivo, que inicia entre 1 a 4 horas después de la ingestión de alimentos. La manifestación en adultos suele desencadenarse por el consumo de mariscos. Las enfermedades atópicas afectan del 40-60% de los pacientes con síndrome de enterocolitis inducida por proteínas alimentarias, incluso al 40-50% de quienes padecen enteropatía y proctocolitis inducidas por proteínas alimentarias. Los probióticos (Lactobacillus GG) pueden aliviar los síntomas de proctocolitis alérgica inducida por proteínas alimentarias, al alterar la composición de la microbiota intestinal. El trasplante de microbiota fecal (TMF) puede cambiar la microecología intestinal de manera eficiente comparada con los alimentos o probióticos.

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Referencias

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