Alergia alimentaria, puntos clave para la práctica clínica

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PubMed (Inglés)

Palabras clave

Hipersensibilidad alimentaria
Inmunoglobulina E
Alérgenos

Cómo citar

Alergia alimentaria, puntos clave para la práctica clínica. (2021). Revista Alergia México, 67(3). https://doi.org/10.29262/ram.v67i3.741 (Original work published 2020)

Plaudit

Resumen

La alergia alimentaria es una reacción inmunológica que se presenta de forma frecuente en la edad pediátrica; su prevalencia es mayor en los países industrializados y en promedio afecta a 8 % de la población. Los alimentos más frecuentemente involucrados son leche, huevo, soya, cacahuate, pescado, trigo, mariscos y frutos secos. La alergia alimentaria se puede dividir en tres grupos: alergia alimentaria mediada por inmunoglobulina E, no mediada por inmunoglobulina E y mixta. Los síntomas dependerán de los mecanismos inmunológicos y se pueden dividir en inmediatos o tardíos; los inmediatos se presentan en las primeras dos horas de la ingesta y los tardíos posterior a la segunda hora y hasta 72 horas. Para el diagnóstico se debe obtener la historia clínica, realizar exploración física y exámenes de laboratorio; un diagnóstico erróneo puede llevar a dietas de eliminación innecesarias. El estándar de oro es el reto oral doble ciego controlado con placebo. El tratamiento principal es la restricción del alimento, en la cual se debe tener en cuenta las implicaciones nutricionales y psicológicas que conlleva. Otro tratamiento es la inmunoterapia oral, que se recomienda en quienes no pueden llevar a cabo dieta de eliminación por la importante afectación de la calidad de vida.

PubMed (Inglés)

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